GMAT Practice Test Questions

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The GMAT (Graduate Management Admission Test) is one of the entrance exams most commonly used by graduate and business schools. Every year over a quarter of a million people take the exam and over 1500 universities rely on the test to help them assess the qualifications of these applicants for business and management programs. MBA programs are the most popular programs that rely on the GMAT as part of the admissions process, but there are many other graduate programs in the areas of business, management and finance that also use the test.

There are four main sections of the GMAT: Verbal, Quantitative, Integrated Reasoning, and Analytical Writing.

The Verbal section consists of 41 multiple choice questions and takes 75 minutes. Questions on this section measure reading comprehension, logical reasoning, the ability to evaluate arguments, and the ability to use sentences both correctly and effectively.

The Quantitative section also takes 75 minutes, and consists of 37 multiple choice questions of two kinds: problem solving, and data sufficiency. Test takers need to know arithmetic, basic algebra, and basic geometry. These questions measure the abilities to analyze data, solve problems, and reason quantitatively.

Integrated Reasoning is 30 minutes long and consists of 12 questions in four formats: multi-source reasoning, two-part analysis, table analysis, and graphics interpretation. This is a new section of the GMAT; it was developed to measure the test taker's ability to comprehend and analyze multiple sources of data in different formats. This section is scored on a scale of 1-8, and does not count toward the overall score.

On the Analytical Writing portion, which is 30 minutes long, the test taker is required to write a response to an argument that is presented for analysis. The purpose is to measure the abilities to understand ideas, criticize ideas, and write in an organized and persuasive manner. This section is scored on a scale of 1-6, and does not count toward the overall score.

With breaks, the exam takes four hours to complete. The Verbal and Quantitative sections are adaptive, meaning that incorrect answers lead to easier questions, and correct answers lead to more difficult questions. (The other two sections are not adaptive.) The overall test is scored on a scale of 200-800, with a score of 700 or better being considered very high. Test takers receive their unofficial score report before they leave the testing center. Official score reports (for all tests taken in the last five years) are sent to up to five designated universities.

Practice Questions

1. If the radius of circle O is one-quarter the diameter of circle P, what is the ratio of the circumference of circle O to the circumference of circle P?

  1. ¼
  2. ½
  3. 1
  4. 2
  5. 4

2. If x2 + 3x - 18 = 0 and x < 0, which of the following must equal 0 ?

I. x2 - 36
II. x2 - 2x - 3
III. x2 + 5x - 6

  1. I only
  2. II only
  3. III only
  4. I and III only
  5. I, II, and III

Data Sufficiency

These Data Sufficiency problems consist of a question and two statements, labeled (1) and (2), in which certain data are given. You have to decide whether the data given in the statements are sufficient for answering the question, using only the data given in the statements and your knowledge of mathematics and everyday facts (such as the number of days in July or the meaning of counterclockwise).

  1. Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) is not sufficient.
  2. Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) is not sufficient.
  3. BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient.
  4. EACH statement ALONE is sufficient.
  5. Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient.

3.

GMAT Quantitative

What is the measure of x in the circle with center O above?

(1) The circumference of the circle is 6π.
(2) The length of arc AB is 2π.
a. b. c. d. e.

4. If q is an integer between 2 and 9 inclusive and q is also the square root of an integer, what is the value of q?

(1) q is even.
(2) The cube root of q is an integer.
a. b. c. d. e.

Reading Comprehension

Questions 5 - 8 pertain to the following passage:

Current theories of linguistic evolution state that language change, rather than being the result of incorrect language use or sloppy speech, is part of the continual evolution and progression of the structure of language. As languages are influenced by other cultures they come into contact with, dialectical variations occur. It can take anywhere from a century in intensely multicultural areas to millennia in isolated communities for the standard spoken language to change so much that it would be unrecognizable to speakers of the original tongue. In either case, the accumulation of new words is accompanied by the proliferation of subtle grammatical variations that indicate a deeper language change.

Language changes in multicultural regions-like the Balkans of Europe-are quite drastic and rapid; linguists studying language change in these areas can observe the process as it occurs much more readily. When the language seems to be evolving much more gradually, however, as in Iceland and the other Scandinavian countries, locating current linguistic trends is just the surface. Verb morphology irregularities, vowel shifts, and recently introduced words all help to show how the language may change next, as do areas where the language has remained surprisingly consistent over the past several centuries. When the historical record is available, linguists rely on it. Early writings can vary from fragments of stories on scraps of parchment to well-preserved, detailed accounts of the proper use and pronunciation of the ancient tongue, as is the case with the ancient Romans.

Once the boundaries and characteristics of a language community are established, linguistic scholars can gather data from subcultures within that community. The linguists must attempt to study every group within a community, while staying within a linguistically well-defined area. Changes in the speech of young or marginalized subcultures or groups that have an unusual amount of contact with outsiders are great early indicators of looming language shifts. Phonological drift-a gradual change in the way certain sounds or combinations of sound are pronounced by speakers within the community-can be accurately measured and recorded through computer voice analysis measuring the pronunciations of hundreds of volunteers saying the same sentences. In theory, if the linguists posit a definition of a critical language shift-the amount of change in a given language before it would become unrecognizable to current speakers-they can predict when this will occur by extrapolating current rates of change. All things being equal, this can predict the time it will take for a completely new language to evolve.

Massive migrations, occupations, and social collapse are some phenomena that can trigger a more rapid language change. Many are only just being investigated as modern linguists observe cultures in crisis. Watching for these sorts of drastic upheavals helps linguists select potential regions for current studies. The effects of these events are still being discovered. For example, linguists are currently studying the declines of Meso-American languages under the influence of Spanish-speaking Mexican linguistic and cultural hegemony.

5. The text says that a main difference between multicultural regions like the Balkans and isolated regions like Iceland is that in multicultural regions

  1. there are no precursors to change
  2. there are fewer language changes
  3. languages change more rapidly
  4. there are no subtle changes before big language shifts
  5. the cultural forces that underlie language change are less powerful

6. The essay is written to

  1. show how languages change in isolated areas
  2. argue that language change is a normal thing
  3. examine the phenomena that cause language change in multicultural areas
  4. assert that it is impossible to predict when a language will change
  5. describe how linguists study language change

7. The third paragraph serves primarily to

  1. describe the relationship between phonological drift and language change
  2. explain the difficulty of studying language change in a given community
  3. contrast language communities in isolated and multicultural areas
  4. examine some of the ways linguists study language change in different parts of a community to get a picture of the community as a whole
  5. suggest that language change is a much more pervasive phenomenon than most scholars think

8. According to the essay, information about phonological drift within a community can help linguists

  1. predict when a new language will evolve
  2. assess how important a new word is in the evolution of the language
  3. measure social and cultural upheaval
  4. come up with more accurate ways to measure language change
  5. estimate the rate of language change in similar cultures

Sentence Correction

These questions present a sentence, all or part of which is underlined. Beneath each sentence you will find five ways of phrasing the underlined part. The first of these repeats the original; the other four are different. If you think the original is best, choose the first answer; otherwise, choose one of the other answers. These questions test correctness and effectiveness of expression. In choosing your answer, follow the requirements of standard written English; that is, pay attention to grammar, choice of words, and sentence construction. Choose the answer that produces the most effective sentence; this answer should be clear and exact, without awkwardness, ambiguity, redundancy, or grammatical error.

9. Environmentalists studying global climate change have scientifically determined that global warming is accelerating, and the Kyoto protocols and other environmental treaties of the latter half of the 20th century is only slowing, rather than stopping, the acceleration of climate change.

  1. the Kyoto protocols and other environmental treaties of the latter half of the 20th century is only slowing, rather than stopping, the acceleration of climate change
  2. in the latter half of the 20th century, the Kyoto protocols and other environmental treaties is only slowing, rather than stopping, the acceleration of climate change
  3. the Kyoto protocols and other environmental treaties of the latter half of the 20th century have only slowed, rather than stopped, the acceleration of climate change
  4. in the latter half of the 20th century, the Kyoto protocols and other environmental treaties have only been slowing, rather than stopped, the acceleration
  5. the latter half of the 20th century's Kyoto protocols and other environmental treaties only were slowing, rather than stopping, climate change's acceleration

10. Still using classic forms dating from before the age of Shakespeare, new metric forms and approaches to rhythm allow 21st-century poets not only to write artful verse, but also to express the rhythms of modern life.

  1. new metric forms and approaches to rhythm allow 21st-century poets not only to write artful verse, but also to express
  2. 21st-century poets using new metric forms and approaches to rhythm write not only artful verse, but also can express
  3. employing new metric forms and approaches to rhythm allows 21st-century poets not only to write artful verse, but also to express
  4. employing new metric forms and approaches not just for artful verse, 21st-century poets are able to express
  5. the poets of the 21st century are empowered by new metric forms and approaches not just for writing artful verse, but also for expressing

Critical Reasoning

11. Until Congress began offering bailouts to insolvent lenders, risky loans were limited by the fear that corporate directors had of becoming insolvent. Since the bailouts began, however, high risk strategies have boomed and corporate bankruptcies have crippled the economy. Assuming that all of the following solutions are possible to carry out, which would have the best chance of stopping the problem of corporate bankruptcy?

  1. stopping companies from expanding current high-risk loan programs
  2. using economic modeling software to predict how likely risky loans are to lead to lender bankruptcy
  3. requiring the establishment of a low-risk loan program for every new high-risk loan program
  4. offering to buy high-risk loans from lenders and passing a law to ban further bailouts
  5. requiring lenders to adopt a more diverse economic program in exchange for eligibility for future bailouts

12. Victims of Marah's disease, a virtually unknown neurological condition, appear pain-free and content. Often, they also have a desire to engage in vigorous physical activities such as contact sports. Beneath it all, they are in great physical pain but have an inability to express it or act to reduce it, making diagnosis difficult. As a result, they are inaccurately diagnosed as very low on the pain scale, their discomfort level much lower than victims of severe sprains, despite the fact that sprains, although more painful, are temporary and comparatively easy to manage nature. This passage makes the argument that

  1. the pain scale is not an accurate or adequate way to measure the physical discomfort of certain people, such as those suffering from Marah's disease
  2. sprain victims have more intense pain than Marah's sufferers, but they can manage their pain more easily
  3. the pain scale seems to put more emphasis on intensity of pain than duration
  4. victims of Marah's syndrome are often unable to deal effectively with their discomfort
  5. there needs to be more public awareness of Marah's syndrome

Answers and Explanations

1. B: The radius of circle O is one-fourth the diameter of circle P. The diameter is twice the radius, or d = 2r. So ro = ¼(2rp) = ½ rp.
The circumference of circle P = 2π rp.
The circumference of circle O = 2π ro = 2π ( 1/2 rp) = πrp.
The ratio of circle O's circumference to circle P's is (prp)/(2πrp) = 1/2.

2. D: If x2 + 3x - 18 = 0, then (x + 6)(x - 3) = 0. So x = - 6 or 3. We are told x < 0, so x must equal - 6.
I. (-6)2 - 36 = 0 True
II. (-6)2 - 2(-6) - 3 ≠ 0 False
III. (-6)2 + 5(-6) - 6 = 0 True

3. C: Justifications:
(1) The formula for circumference is 2πr. Setting that equal to 6π, we get r = 3, but the radius does not tell us anything about x. So (1) is not sufficient.
(2) The length of arc AB = 2π, but without knowing the circumference, we can't find x. So (2) is not sufficient.
Taking both (1) and (2) together, we know that AB = 2π and C = 6π and so arc AB is one-third the circumference. Thus, angle x is one-third of the circle, or (1/3)(360) = 120.
Therefore, the correct answer is C; BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient.

4. B: Justifications:
(1) The even integers between 2 and 9 inclusive that are the square root of some integer are 2, 4, 6, and 8. So (1) is not sufficient.
(2) Of the integers 2 through 9, only 8 has a cube root that is an integer, so (2) is sufficient.
Therefore, the correct answer is B; Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) alone is not sufficient.

5. C: Language change in multicultural areas is characterized as "drastic and rapid." These areas are contrasted with isolated communities. The implication is that languages change much more quickly in multicultural areas than isolated regions.

6. E: This question asks for the main purpose of the essay. The correct answer must not only refer to one part of the essay, but to the essay as a whole. Choice D is incorrect, since the author spends much of the essay talking about ways that language change can be predicted. Choices A, B, and C refer to things the author discusses in part of the essay, but only in part. The whole essay, however, discusses "how linguists study language change."

7. D: The first sentence of the paragraph is a giveaway (it often is). It states that "once . . . a language community is established, linguistic scholars can gather data from subcultures within that community." The paragraph then shows how they study those subcultures by observing and recording changes in speech of "young or marginalized subcultures" as a source of "early indicators of looming language shifts." The paragraph even examines some of the things linguists look for-phonological drift, for example-and discusses the way they catalog language change-"computer voice analysis."

8. A: The third paragraph says that "if the linguists posit a definition of a critical language shift. . . . [they can] predict the time it will take to evolve a completely new language."

9. C: The subject "Kyoto protocols" is plural, so the singular "is" does not agree with it. Choices C, D, and E correct this error. Choice E has the awkward possessives "20th century's" and "climate change's." In choice D, the verb phrases "have only been slowing" and "rather than stopped" are not parallel.

10. B: The subject complement "still using . . . from Shakespeare" has to be followed by the subject, "21st-century poets." Both choices B and E do this, but B is a simpler, less awkward sentence.

11. D: The question poses a problem (bankruptcy) and a cause (the promise of bailouts leading to high-risk loans) and asks for a solution. The solution should stop the bailouts as a way to stop the risky loans and, in turn, prevent insolvency. Choice A stops current high-risk loan programs from expanding, but it doesn't stop them from existing, nor does it stop companies from making new ones. Choice B is irrelevant-we already know that risky loans lead to bankruptcy. Choice C might help and might not, but it doesn't directly address the cause. Choice E has the same problem as choice C. Only choice D attempts to do away with high-risk loans by both buying back current ones and removing bailouts, the cause of future ones.

12. A: The author says that victims of Marah's disease "appear" to be comfortable but "beneath it all" are in pain. He says that they are "inaccurately" diagnosed as low on the pain scale. This shows that the pain scale is not an accurate way to measure Marah's disease.

GMAT - Quantitative Problem Solving Practice Questions

1. If the radius of circle O is one-quarter the diameter of circle P, what is the ratio of the circumference of circle O to the circumference of circle P?

  1. ¼
  2. ½
  3. 1
  4. 2
  5. 4

2. If x2 + 3x - 18 = 0 and x < 0, which of the following must equal 0 ?

I. x2 - 36
II. x2 - 2x - 3
III. x2 + 5x - 6

  1. I only
  2. II only
  3. III only
  4. I and III only
  5. I, II, and III

Data Sufficiency

These Data Sufficiency problems consist of a question and two statements, labeled (1) and (2), in which certain data are given. You have to decide whether the data given in the statements are sufficient for answering the question, using only the data given in the statements and your knowledge of mathematics and everyday facts (such as the number of days in July or the meaning of counterclockwise).

  1. Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) is not sufficient.
  2. Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) is not sufficient.
  3. BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient.
  4. EACH statement ALONE is sufficient.
  5. Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient.

3.

GMAT Quantitative

What is the measure of x in the circle with center O above?

(1) The circumference of the circle is 6π.
(2) The length of arc AB is 2π.
a. b. c. d. e.

4. If q is an integer between 2 and 9 inclusive and q is also the square root of an integer, what is the value of q?

(1) q is even.
(2) The cube root of q is an integer.
a. b. c. d. e.

Reading Comprehension

Questions 5 - 8 pertain to the following passage:

Current theories of linguistic evolution state that language change, rather than being the result of incorrect language use or sloppy speech, is part of the continual evolution and progression of the structure of language. As languages are influenced by other cultures they come into contact with, dialectical variations occur. It can take anywhere from a century in intensely multicultural areas to millennia in isolated communities for the standard spoken language to change so much that it would be unrecognizable to speakers of the original tongue. In either case, the accumulation of new words is accompanied by the proliferation of subtle grammatical variations that indicate a deeper language change.

Language changes in multicultural regions-like the Balkans of Europe-are quite drastic and rapid; linguists studying language change in these areas can observe the process as it occurs much more readily. When the language seems to be evolving much more gradually, however, as in Iceland and the other Scandinavian countries, locating current linguistic trends is just the surface. Verb morphology irregularities, vowel shifts, and recently introduced words all help to show how the language may change next, as do areas where the language has remained surprisingly consistent over the past several centuries. When the historical record is available, linguists rely on it. Early writings can vary from fragments of stories on scraps of parchment to well-preserved, detailed accounts of the proper use and pronunciation of the ancient tongue, as is the case with the ancient Romans.

Once the boundaries and characteristics of a language community are established, linguistic scholars can gather data from subcultures within that community. The linguists must attempt to study every group within a community, while staying within a linguistically well-defined area. Changes in the speech of young or marginalized subcultures or groups that have an unusual amount of contact with outsiders are great early indicators of looming language shifts. Phonological drift-a gradual change in the way certain sounds or combinations of sound are pronounced by speakers within the community-can be accurately measured and recorded through computer voice analysis measuring the pronunciations of hundreds of volunteers saying the same sentences. In theory, if the linguists posit a definition of a critical language shift-the amount of change in a given language before it would become unrecognizable to current speakers-they can predict when this will occur by extrapolating current rates of change. All things being equal, this can predict the time it will take for a completely new language to evolve.

Massive migrations, occupations, and social collapse are some phenomena that can trigger a more rapid language change. Many are only just being investigated as modern linguists observe cultures in crisis. Watching for these sorts of drastic upheavals helps linguists select potential regions for current studies. The effects of these events are still being discovered. For example, linguists are currently studying the declines of Meso-American languages under the influence of Spanish-speaking Mexican linguistic and cultural hegemony.

5. The text says that a main difference between multicultural regions like the Balkans and isolated regions like Iceland is that in multicultural regions

  1. there are no precursors to change
  2. there are fewer language changes
  3. languages change more rapidly
  4. there are no subtle changes before big language shifts
  5. the cultural forces that underlie language change are less powerful

6. The essay is written to

  1. show how languages change in isolated areas
  2. argue that language change is a normal thing
  3. examine the phenomena that cause language change in multicultural areas
  4. assert that it is impossible to predict when a language will change
  5. describe how linguists study language change

7. The third paragraph serves primarily to

  1. describe the relationship between phonological drift and language change
  2. explain the difficulty of studying language change in a given community
  3. contrast language communities in isolated and multicultural areas
  4. examine some of the ways linguists study language change in different parts of a community to get a picture of the community as a whole
  5. suggest that language change is a much more pervasive phenomenon than most scholars think

8. According to the essay, information about phonological drift within a community can help linguists

  1. predict when a new language will evolve
  2. assess how important a new word is in the evolution of the language
  3. measure social and cultural upheaval
  4. come up with more accurate ways to measure language change
  5. estimate the rate of language change in similar cultures

Sentence Correction

These questions present a sentence, all or part of which is underlined. Beneath each sentence you will find five ways of phrasing the underlined part. The first of these repeats the original; the other four are different. If you think the original is best, choose the first answer; otherwise, choose one of the other answers. These questions test correctness and effectiveness of expression. In choosing your answer, follow the requirements of standard written English; that is, pay attention to grammar, choice of words, and sentence construction. Choose the answer that produces the most effective sentence; this answer should be clear and exact, without awkwardness, ambiguity, redundancy, or grammatical error.

9. Environmentalists studying global climate change have scientifically determined that global warming is accelerating, and the Kyoto protocols and other environmental treaties of the latter half of the 20th century is only slowing, rather than stopping, the acceleration of climate change.

  1. the Kyoto protocols and other environmental treaties of the latter half of the 20th century is only slowing, rather than stopping, the acceleration of climate change
  2. in the latter half of the 20th century, the Kyoto protocols and other environmental treaties is only slowing, rather than stopping, the acceleration of climate change
  3. the Kyoto protocols and other environmental treaties of the latter half of the 20th century have only slowed, rather than stopped, the acceleration of climate change
  4. in the latter half of the 20th century, the Kyoto protocols and other environmental treaties have only been slowing, rather than stopped, the acceleration
  5. the latter half of the 20th century's Kyoto protocols and other environmental treaties only were slowing, rather than stopping, climate change's acceleration

10. Still using classic forms dating from before the age of Shakespeare, new metric forms and approaches to rhythm allow 21st-century poets not only to write artful verse, but also to express the rhythms of modern life.

  1. new metric forms and approaches to rhythm allow 21st-century poets not only to write artful verse, but also to express
  2. 21st-century poets using new metric forms and approaches to rhythm write not only artful verse, but also can express
  3. employing new metric forms and approaches to rhythm allows 21st-century poets not only to write artful verse, but also to express
  4. employing new metric forms and approaches not just for artful verse, 21st-century poets are able to express
  5. the poets of the 21st century are empowered by new metric forms and approaches not just for writing artful verse, but also for expressing

Critical Reasoning

11. Until Congress began offering bailouts to insolvent lenders, risky loans were limited by the fear that corporate directors had of becoming insolvent. Since the bailouts began, however, high risk strategies have boomed and corporate bankruptcies have crippled the economy. Assuming that all of the following solutions are possible to carry out, which would have the best chance of stopping the problem of corporate bankruptcy?

  1. stopping companies from expanding current high-risk loan programs
  2. using economic modeling software to predict how likely risky loans are to lead to lender bankruptcy
  3. requiring the establishment of a low-risk loan program for every new high-risk loan program
  4. offering to buy high-risk loans from lenders and passing a law to ban further bailouts
  5. requiring lenders to adopt a more diverse economic program in exchange for eligibility for future bailouts

12. Victims of Marah's disease, a virtually unknown neurological condition, appear pain-free and content. Often, they also have a desire to engage in vigorous physical activities such as contact sports. Beneath it all, they are in great physical pain but have an inability to express it or act to reduce it, making diagnosis difficult. As a result, they are inaccurately diagnosed as very low on the pain scale, their discomfort level much lower than victims of severe sprains, despite the fact that sprains, although more painful, are temporary and comparatively easy to manage nature. This passage makes the argument that

  1. the pain scale is not an accurate or adequate way to measure the physical discomfort of certain people, such as those suffering from Marah's disease
  2. sprain victims have more intense pain than Marah's sufferers, but they can manage their pain more easily
  3. the pain scale seems to put more emphasis on intensity of pain than duration
  4. victims of Marah's syndrome are often unable to deal effectively with their discomfort
  5. there needs to be more public awareness of Marah's syndrome

Answers and Explanations

1. B: The radius of circle O is one-fourth the diameter of circle P. The diameter is twice the radius, or d = 2r. So ro = ¼(2rp) = ½ rp.
The circumference of circle P = 2π rp.
The circumference of circle O = 2π ro = 2π ( 1/2 rp) = πrp.
The ratio of circle O's circumference to circle P's is (prp)/(2πrp) = 1/2.

2. D: If x2 + 3x - 18 = 0, then (x + 6)(x - 3) = 0. So x = - 6 or 3. We are told x < 0, so x must equal - 6.
I. (-6)2 - 36 = 0 True
II. (-6)2 - 2(-6) - 3 ≠ 0 False
III. (-6)2 + 5(-6) - 6 = 0 True

3. C: Justifications:
(1) The formula for circumference is 2πr. Setting that equal to 6π, we get r = 3, but the radius does not tell us anything about x. So (1) is not sufficient.
(2) The length of arc AB = 2π, but without knowing the circumference, we can't find x. So (2) is not sufficient.
Taking both (1) and (2) together, we know that AB = 2π and C = 6π and so arc AB is one-third the circumference. Thus, angle x is one-third of the circle, or (1/3)(360) = 120.
Therefore, the correct answer is C; BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient.

4. B: Justifications:
(1) The even integers between 2 and 9 inclusive that are the square root of some integer are 2, 4, 6, and 8. So (1) is not sufficient.
(2) Of the integers 2 through 9, only 8 has a cube root that is an integer, so (2) is sufficient.
Therefore, the correct answer is B; Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) alone is not sufficient.

5. C: Language change in multicultural areas is characterized as "drastic and rapid." These areas are contrasted with isolated communities. The implication is that languages change much more quickly in multicultural areas than isolated regions.

6. E: This question asks for the main purpose of the essay. The correct answer must not only refer to one part of the essay, but to the essay as a whole. Choice D is incorrect, since the author spends much of the essay talking about ways that language change can be predicted. Choices A, B, and C refer to things the author discusses in part of the essay, but only in part. The whole essay, however, discusses "how linguists study language change."

7. D: The first sentence of the paragraph is a giveaway (it often is). It states that "once . . . a language community is established, linguistic scholars can gather data from subcultures within that community." The paragraph then shows how they study those subcultures by observing and recording changes in speech of "young or marginalized subcultures" as a source of "early indicators of looming language shifts." The paragraph even examines some of the things linguists look for-phonological drift, for example-and discusses the way they catalog language change-"computer voice analysis."

8. A: The third paragraph says that "if the linguists posit a definition of a critical language shift. . . . [they can] predict the time it will take to evolve a completely new language."

9. C: The subject "Kyoto protocols" is plural, so the singular "is" does not agree with it. Choices C, D, and E correct this error. Choice E has the awkward possessives "20th century's" and "climate change's." In choice D, the verb phrases "have only been slowing" and "rather than stopped" are not parallel.

10. B: The subject complement "still using . . . from Shakespeare" has to be followed by the subject, "21st-century poets." Both choices B and E do this, but B is a simpler, less awkward sentence.

11. D: The question poses a problem (bankruptcy) and a cause (the promise of bailouts leading to high-risk loans) and asks for a solution. The solution should stop the bailouts as a way to stop the risky loans and, in turn, prevent insolvency. Choice A stops current high-risk loan programs from expanding, but it doesn't stop them from existing, nor does it stop companies from making new ones. Choice B is irrelevant-we already know that risky loans lead to bankruptcy. Choice C might help and might not, but it doesn't directly address the cause. Choice E has the same problem as choice C. Only choice D attempts to do away with high-risk loans by both buying back current ones and removing bailouts, the cause of future ones.

12. A: The author says that victims of Marah's disease "appear" to be comfortable but "beneath it all" are in pain. He says that they are "inaccurately" diagnosed as low on the pain scale. This shows that the pain scale is not an accurate way to measure Marah's disease.

Skills at logical reasoning, problem solving, and their abilities to interpret, evaluate and analyze scientific material.

By Lindsay Downs

Last Updated: 04/12/2014

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