The Praxis II test series is a comprehensive and challenging battery of assessments for prospective educators that cover specific subject areas. For the most part, men and women take these tests as part of the certification process in their state or district. However, there are some professional associations and organizations that require passage of a Praxis II test as a condition of membership.
The exams are administered in computer and paper formats and have more than 120 assessments in the series. Most of the tests take one or two hours, and it is usually possible to take more than one exam in a single day. There are three basic Praxis II test groups: subject assessments, principles of learning and teaching tests, and teaching foundations tests.
Subject assessments evaluate basic knowledge in specific content areas, such as agriculture or music. These tests usually include both multiple-choice and essay questions.
The principles of learning and teaching tests, on the other hand, focus on pedagogical knowledge for the following grade levels: early childhood; K through six; five through nine; and seven through twelve. These exams include both multiple-choice and essay questions.
Teaching foundations tests assess pedagogical knowledge in five specific areas: multi-subject; English; language arts; mathematics; and science and social science. These exams all include both multiple-choice and essay questions.
Praxis II test scores are made available approximately four weeks after the exam date.
1. A teacher who suspects that a
student is being physically abused by a parent should:
a. talk to the student and try to uncover the facts of the situation.
b. talk to the parents before risking an unfounded accusation.
c. consult with trusted colleagues to decide upon an appropriate course of action.
d. immediately report their suspicions to police or child protective services.
2. By the time they complete
Grade 1, students are generally expected to acquire all of the
following health skills EXCEPT:
a. identifying safety rules that help to prevent poisoning.
b. explaining the harmful effects of, and how to avoid, alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs.
c. examining issues related to death and grieving.
d. describing ways in which health is affected by weather and pollution.
3. In treating cases of child
abuse or neglect, the primary objective is to:
a. teach the child how to cope with living in an abusive environment.
b. identify and punish all parties involved in the abuse.
c. find a suitable foster home for the abused or neglected child.
d. return the child to a safe, healthy family environment.
4. Which of these is likely to
decrease in response to regular physical activity?
a. Thyroid function
b. Arterial elasticity
c. Blood volume
d. Resting heart rate
5. Which of the following would
NOT be included among the social skills and values acquired through
participation in physical activities?
a. Reducing the risk of musculoskeletal injuries.
b. Learning to communicate and cooperate with others.
c. Developing respect for school rules and property.
d. Identifying constructive uses for leisure time.
1. D. Teachers in all 50 states are legally required to report any reasonable suspicion of child abuse to the proper authorities. Abused children often deny abuse to protect an abusive parent.
2. C. The health skills described in choices A, B, and D are generally expected of students in Grade 1. Issues related to death and grieving are generally not mentioned in curriculum guidelines until later.
3. D. The child’s welfare is always of primary importance. It is often possible to take corrective measures that allow a child to be safely returned to his or her family. Punishment of the guilty parties is generally less constructive than finding and eliminating the causes of neglect or abuse.
4. D. A healthy, efficient heart pumps more blood with each beat and can therefore beat at a slower rate. Physical activity contributes to good health by increasing arterial elasticity, blood volume, and thyroid function.
5. A. While all of the choices
reflect the benefits of physical activity, reducing the risk of bodily
injury is not directly related to the development of social skills and
There are many types of teaching careers, and while each job serves our society and is equally important to our educational system, some teaching jobs are more in demand than others. For one, teaching jobs in large cities will always be in greater demand than smaller cities. As baby boomers retire, replacement teachers will be needed to fill these positions. As our nation fights to compete with other nations in the world, we need to develop our math and science skills. Math and science teachers are needed especially for these subjects. Subjects such as biology, chemistry, calculus, and statistics are areas of continuous need.
Effective math and science teachers need strong analytical and communication skills with an attention to detail. They need to be able to convey complex ideas and theories in easy, understandable terms. Being that these subjects are important, a certain level of patience and creativity is required. Creativity is important in order to utilize various strategies and techniques to convey complex subject matters and ideas. Many school districts look to employ teachers who have these degrees to fill gaps in their employment. These sought-after degrees are at all grade levels. The national average elementary school teacher salary is $40,000 per year, with most middle school teachers earning $41,000. The national average for high school teachers is $43,000, and secondary school teachers earn 41,000 a year.
In addition, special education teachers are always in demand. As increased pressure and measurable results are required of our educational system, schools are faced with new challenges to meet the needs of all students. New testing standards and legal requirements make the need for special education teachers higher than ever. Due to the lack of sufficient teachers with this skill, some states have resorted to hiring teachers who are seeking but have not yet obtained the degree. A special education teacher may work with a variety of children with varying physical, intellectual, emotional, or developmental needs. Because the range of these services is so broad, training in this field is extensive. Besides the personal fulfillment this career can bring, the national average for special education teachers in preschool, kindergarten, or elementary school is $41, 000 and for secondary school is $44,000 a year.
As our nation continues to diversify, teachers experienced in more than one language are in demand. Bilingual teachers with a working knowledge of Spanish are most in need to instruct students who do not speak English fluently. In addition, this knowledge is helpful in communicating with the parents or guardians of these students. The national average for a bilingual teacher is $42,000 a year.
Administrators are another area of education that is in demand. People to run and manage schools, programs, and budgets are needed. With reduced budgets and resources, people are needed to run schools more efficiently. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), senior high school principals earn about $97,000 a year, middle school principals earn $91,000 a year, and elementary school principals earn $85,000 a year. Assistant principals in high school earn $79,000 a year; in middle school, they earn $76,000; and in elementary school, they earn $71,000 a year.
Administrator jobs can lead to more challenging careers. The average salary for a chief academic officer is $158,000 a year. An academic dean can also earn more than $100,000 a year, with most business deans earning $150,000 and arts and sciences deans earning $134,000. Deans of graduate programs earn $130,000; education, $128,000; and nursing, $125,000 a year. Health-related profession deans earn about $120,000 a year, continuing education deans earn $109,000 a year, and occupational studies or vocational education deans earn $92,000 on average. Other administrators, like chief development officers, earn about $141,000 a year, a dean of students earns $88,000, and a director of student financial aid can earn about $74,000 a year.